TRAININGS AND EXERCISES
The tasks of raising the level of TCC personnel skill, improving hardware and software systems and maintaining a high level of TCC emergency preparedness in everyday activity mode are primarily resolved through the exercises and training. TCC IBRAE RAN is an active participant of emergency response exercises which are regularly held at the facilities of "Rosenergoatom" and are organized by the State Corporation "Rosatom" and EMERCOM of Russia. The regional crisis centers are also involved in these activities. The TCC experts annually participate in preparation and conduct of 3-4 trainings of facility, departmental and regional levels, develop the technological and radiological scenarios of emergencies at NRHF, specialized simulation software, and train personnel. Directly in the exercise course, TCC provides assessment of the source of radioactive release, forecasting of radiological consequences of hypothetical accident and develops the recommendations on protection of population and environment.
Joint emergency response exercises and training are the area of broad international cooperation. Among the important examples of such cooperation, it should be mentioned IBRAE participation in national exercises at research reactors "Becquerel-1996" and "Saclay-2000" within the partnership with the IRSN (France), international exercise "Aragats-99" at the Armenian NPP, joint exercises with the Department of Energy of the United States at Bilibino (2002), at NIIAR BOR-60 reactor (2003, 2015), training in mitigation of the consequences of hypothetic accidents during SNF overloading on nuclear icebreaker at "Atomflot" (2005, 2015 ) and FSUE "" Zvezdochka "(2008).
TCC experts are actively involved in preparing and conducting the exercises with territorial subsystems of RERS. Starting from 2007, the comprehensive emergency and tabletop exercises are held annually in the different regions of our country. “Novovoronezh-2011”, "Arctic-2011, 2012" and "Kursk 2012" were the most large-scale exercises.
Regular exercises of personnel of crisis centers began in 1999, when it become possible to use the Internet for interaction. During the exercises, the messages were by fax in addition to information exchange via the Internet. To date, communications between the emergency response participants at the facility, municipal, regional and federal levels is organized by following information channels: video conferencing, ftp-server, fax, phone, e-mail (see Fig. 1).
This system allows the participants work in a single information space at all stages of emergency exercise, including the preparatory stages and summarizing.
The intensity of such training and exercises has remained rather stable, ranging from a few to a dozen in a calendar year. articipants work in a single information space at all stages of emergency exercise, including the preparatory stages and summarizing.
The following tasks are solving during such emergency exercises:
The exercises conducted to date can be divided by departmental belonging:
In recent years, about four dozen different exercises involving different national services were carried out.
The drills and exercises allow:
In addition, all participants and observers from various departments acquire valuable experience in various fields from the exercise and trainings.
1) The regional authorities:
2) The scientists and experts gain experience in the following areas:
Also, an important aspect is to arrange interaction between various crisis centers and to gain access to timely information of the partners. Over the last year on-line data exchange are organized between the TSC of IBRAE RAN, FSUE "SCC of Rosatom" and the National Emergency Management Center of EMERCOM of Russia.
Thus, the system to achieve and maintain a high skill of personnel of nuclear facilities created and maintained in Russia to date. Particular attention is given to the system of continuous training in emergency response and actions for the prevention and elimination of radiation emergencies. Theoretical knowledge and skills of managers and experts of nuclear facilities are strengthened through regular exercises and training.